Argument against cognitive relativism essay

individual relativism

The Interpretation of Cultures. There are also strong and unresolved disagreements between scientists working contemporaneously.

Argument against cognitive relativism essay

Language, Thought and Reality. But how does one prove this to someone who categorically denies it? One reason for thinking that a relativistic view of morality might foster tolerance is that it will also incline us to be more self-critical. Field, Hartry. Critics commonly reduce it to the claim that any point of view is as good as any other and then attack it with some variation of Plato's arguments against Protagoras. Science is generally thought to describe an independently existing, objective reality; and scientists from all over the world largely accept the same methodology, data, theories and conclusions, except in the case of disputes at the cutting edge of research. There are also strong and unresolved disagreements between scientists working contemporaneously. The forms we impose on experience also give the world a certain necessary character that is independent of our beliefs and wishes. The question of whether or not there are universal values has been at the center of many of the debates about moral relativism. For example, Foucault suggests that the classification of homosexuality as a disease results from employing a certain kind of theoretical framework, one that posits a sharp distinction between the natural and the unnatural and correlates the former with the healthy, the latter with the sick. It is this second claim, the denial of any metaphysically privileged standpoint, that most provokes relativism's critics.

In their view, one can consistently endorse a relativistic view of truth while still being committed to the relative superiority of some views over others, to the value of critical reflection, and to the possibility of using reason as an instrument of scientific and social progress. But the relativists reject the quick move that presupposes the very conception of truth they are at pains to undermine and have offered sophisticated approaches of defense.

The Many Faces of Realism. It is this second claim, the denial of any metaphysically privileged standpoint, that most provokes relativism's critics. Oxford: Oneworld, Indianapolis: Hackett, Clearly, this is a problem for anyone, relativist or not, who elevates the principle that we should be tolerant to an absolute, exceptionless rule.

example of relativism

In France, a law was passed in banning face veils that some Muslim women view as required by Islam. It suggests that the beliefs could not withstand critical scrutiny, or perhaps that they are just not worth appraising.

Relativism examples

The many different interpretations of quantum mechanics are a case in point. He could also try to persuade others to become the sort of thinker for whom relativism is true without being entangled in self-contradiction. What he means is that relativists try to discuss questions of truth, knowledge, and rationality in a thoroughly descriptive, non-normative way. If it applies to everyone, then it is a trans-cultural moral principle, in which case relativism is false. Only the most extreme rigorists would deny that in assessing a moral judgment we should take the particular circumstances into account. Author Information. And defenders of slavery in the United States did indeed used to argue that blacks were sub-human and could therefore legitimately be treated like animals rather than as human beings. Supports a version of moral relativism that sees no essential difference between factual claims and normative claims. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Krausz, Michael, and Meiland, Jack W.

Press, Levett, revised by Myles Burnyeay.

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Cognitive Relativism