Explain the different approaches to the
This serves the interest of workers as well as management—workers feel motivated to maximize their earnings, while management gets the benefit of increased productivity. Illumination experiments These experiments took place initially between andin Hawthorne Plant of Western Electric Company and involved industrial engineers of the same company.
Bank wiring observation room experiment This part of the Hawthorne experiments was conducted to test some of the ideas that the researchers formed during the interview phase. His contributions comprise the maturity—immaturity theory, the integration of individual and organizational goals, and the patterns of model I and model II.
Another major consideration for the planners is what types of land use or crops are best suited for the watershed.
What are different types of teaching methods ppt
In this competitive scenario, organizations cannot function in isolation. During the war, managers, government officials, and scientists were brought together to help the army to effectively utilize resources. Compromise Approach This approach provides an outcome which is some improvement over the lose-lose strategy outcome. On the other hand, they get a bonus when they take less than the normal standard time to complete the work. Regarded as the father of Scientific management, Taylor developed specific principles for this field in Gilbreth — Time and motion studies Henry L. This approach gives managers a way of looking at the organization as a whole, whole, person, whole group, and the whole social system. The management science approach visualizes management as a logical entity, expressing management in terms of mathematical symbols, relationships, and measurement data. The carrot and a stick approach is essentially a penalty-reward approach. Planning at watershed level At the watershed level, the major concern of watershed managers or planners is whether the land is properly used. Watershed planners and managers, however, need to assist with proper siting and site stabilization. And one more approach to study organizational behavior is Interdisciplinary Approach. Organizations need to become democratic to accommodate employees and managers. Productivity is generally measured in terms of economic inputs and outputs, but human and social inputs and outputs also are important. Another major consideration for the planners is what types of land use or crops are best suited for the watershed.
The general procedures are explained as follows: - Seriously over-used lands should receive first priority of adjustment or protection. Both these variables have marked influence on decision making. Under-used private lands should be planned for better use according to farmer's interests and existing policies.
Types of research approach
Various decisions are taken at every level of management. Technical: It is concerned with production and manufacturing. Security: It ensures the protection of employees and property. They can thereby frame their managerial styles, which vary from situation to situation. Involving villagers and communities for planning community forests, pasture, roads, and other infrastructural needs are also scopes of the bottom-up approach. Although one of the ways to classify management approaches is from the analysis of John G. The plan should aim at the protection of existing roads: their surfaces, ditches and cut and fill slopes including rehabilitation of land slips and road foundations. It basically emerged from systems analysis. Any existing or proposed plans for crop development, crop zoning, agro-industry, forest or pasture development by either public or private sector in the watershed should be well analyzed and considered in the plan. The operations management approach is primarily concerned with production management and its related areas. Take the intangibles into account, communicate carefully. By and large, they integrated management with their respective areas of specialization. Therefore, learning by doing is a very important process hence any such plan should be kept flexible. Without discipline, results cannot be achieved. Commercial: It includes all activities related to buying, selling, and exchange.
Motion study, on the other hand, involves study of movements in doing a job in parts. This approach considers the organization as a whole because of the interdependent nature of activities, requiring the organization to interact with external environmental factors.
While Maslow focused on the importance of human needs, which are major driving forces for human motivation, McGregor made certain assumptions about people, categorizing them under theory X and theory Y.
Research approach pdf
Over-use of land usually causes soil erosion and land degradation while under-use may cause waste and social problems in many developing countries. Use of verbal communication instead of formal written communication, wherever possible, may help in developing the team spirit in an organization. The Carrot and Stick or Exchange approach This combined approach suggests that with the stick in one hand, the manager will extract work against the threat of penalty and with the carrot in another; he will induce the worker to work harder in the hope of good rewards. A compromise is the best way out when it is impossible for both parties to convince each other or when the disputed resources are limited. Behavioral theories The behavioral school of management emphasizes the human element in an organization, duly recognizing its importance. In the same manner, when employee development programs lead to better citizens in a community, a valuable social output occurs. These phenomena may need to be corrected. Selected women employees samples were put in a separate room and briefed about the experiments. The clerk at a service counter, the machinist, and the manager all work with the people and thereby influence the behavioral quality of life in an organization and its inputs. Illumination experiments These experiments took place initially between and , in Hawthorne Plant of Western Electric Company and involved industrial engineers of the same company.
Land use planning is the process of evaluating land and use patterns, together with other physical, social and economic considerations for selecting or suggesting the best alternative uses.
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