Conquest by stealth is a far more attractive proposition cheaper in every way than full military invasion. Africa had trading systems which had developed over hundreds of years — well before Europeans ever arrived on their shores. They also disconnect businesses from their clients. The respondents said that corruption in the region was increasing despite the campaigns and activism by civil society and the population.
Bantus, and the Zulus expanded and subjected and pushed out the initial inhabitants of the lands the migrated to.
The huge patchwork of ethnicities. The only reason China didn't colonize Vietnam was because the Vietnamese were able eventually to defeat the Chinese and drive them out, but China a couple times in its history tried to colonize Vietnam.
The Turks colonized a lot of southeastern Europe, and the only reason they did not colonize more of Europe was because they were beaten back, twice, at Vienna. In what way did they surpass Europe?
This remarkable irony points not only to technological advance in Europe but also, and most importantly, to the stagnation of technology in Africa owing to the trade with Europe.
Before the Europeans arrived in Africa, Africa had vibrant economic, social and political structures. Europeans relied heavily on Indian cloths for resale in Africa.